post-title Comment les entreprises peuvent-elles financer leur projet ?

Comment les entreprises peuvent-elles financer leur projet ?

Comment les entreprises peuvent-elles financer leur projet ?

Comment les entreprises peuvent-elles financer leur projet ?

Une entreprise a besoin d’argent pour se développer et en gagner par la suite, par exemple elle doit pouvoir acheter du matériel de production.

Comment les dirigeants peuvent-ils trouver les financements dont ils ont besoin ?

Grace à l’emprunt qui peut prendre plusieurs formes, un emprunt bancaire traditionnel, le plus souvent limité au montant apportée par le dirigeant dans sa société.

Un prêt d’honneur

Un prêt d’honneur ou avance remboursable, proposé par exemple par une région ou une institution à un faible taux d’intérêt.

Un emprunt obligatoire émis par l’entreprise, une obligation est une somme prêtée à une entreprise par un particulier ou un organisme contre intérêt.

Grace à l’émission d’actions, lorsque l’entreprise émet des actions elle vend une fraction de son capital, c’est-à-dire une partie d’elle-même. L’acheteur à deux motivations. Il espère que les résultats de l’entreprise permettront de lui verser des dividendes, il espère revendre ses actions à un prix plus élevé que celui auquel il les a achetés.

La vente d’actions

La vente d’actions peut se faire auprès des marchés boursiers, pour y accéder l’entreprise doit notamment publier des informations sur sa santé financière, elle doit donc recruter une personne spécialisée ou faire appel à un cabinet extérieur ce qui représente un coût important.

La vente des actions peut également se faire directement auprès d’investisseur, cela s’appelle le capital investissement. Il en existe différents types, aux différents stades de la vie de l’entreprise. Le capital amortissage qui va permettre de financer la création de l’entreprise et des premiers produits, si les investisseurs sont proches du dirigeant, on parle alors de love money.

Le capital-risque c’est quoi ?

Le capital-risque, concerne principalement les entreprises qui inventent, elles peuvent potentiellement gagner beaucoup d’argent mais qui ont un risque important d’échouer, dans le cadre d’investissements privés appelés business angles, ils apporteront aussi leur réseau et leur expérience. Le capital développement s’adresse à des entreprises déjà rentables qui ont besoin d’investir pour accélérer leur croissance en s’implantant à l’étranger par exemple.

Une nouvelle forme de financement apparaît actuellement, le crowdfunding, via internet il permet à des particuliers d’investir dans des entreprises : en action, en prêt ou dans une moindre mesure en dons.

Que ce soit par l’emprunt ou l’émission d’action, les entreprises disposent de plusieurs possibilités, en fonction des sommes dont elles ont besoin, de leur stratégie et encore de leur taille.

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